Cultural genocide – Raphael Lemkin coined the term “cultural genocide” as a direct reaction to the crimes perpetrated by the Nazi Party and their collaborators during the Holocaust. These crimes included the desecration, destruction and theft of public buildings, monuments, cemeteries, businesses and other property owned by members of a targeted group. They might also take the form of book burnings, segregation, public humiliation, prohibition of religious practices and other forms of violence against individuals, groups and the cultural or religious group they are / are perceived to be affiliated with. Learn more

DGPS – Short for Differential Global Positioning System. Highly accurate positioning system that uses GPS to record the positions of specific features and / or create topographic models of landscapes. Learn more

Genocide – The term genocide is defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as “any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. See the full definition

Geographic Information System (GIS) – A software platform that facilitates the analysis and layering of spatial data e.g. maps, positional data, topographic models, aerial photographs etc. Learn more

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) – A form of geophysical survey that uses the emission and return of electromagnetic radio waves to identify buried anomalies. Learn more

Halacha Law – Jewish religious laws outlined in the Torah. Halacha Law includes specific stipulations regarding burial practices and the treatment of human remains after death.  Learn more

Killing sites – Places of mass execution. These sites may also have been used as places where the bodies of those killed were buried, usually in mass graves. Learn more

Laser Scanning – Also known as LiDAR. Laser scanning uses the emission and return of lasers to collect spatially accurate point cloud data. Following data processing, this can lead to the creation of three dimensionally models of landscapes, structures and objects. Learn more

LiDAR – Short for Light Detection and Ranging. Uses the emission and return of lasers to collect spatially accurate point cloud data. LiDAR may be terrestrial (ground-based) or airborne. Learn more

Matzevah – Hebrew term for a tombstone or monument above a grave. Can also be spelt matzeva. Learn more

Photogrammetry – Collection and stitching of multiple (usually high resolution) photographs in order to take measurements, generate 360 degree panoramas or generate point cloud data for the creation of three dimensional models. Learn more

Total Station – A total station uses the emission and return of a single laser to measure and record distances between objects and, thus, the locations of points or features in relation to each other. The results of these surveys can be a series of points or plan drawings of features and landscapes. Learn more